Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research <p><strong>Pakistan Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research</strong> (PJAMMR) is a peer-reviewed, open-access medical journal published by the Nowshera Medical College Nowshera in Pakistan. The journal aims to promote research and education in the field of Multi Scripting journal and related disciplines. PJAMMR provides a platform for the dissemination of high-quality, original research articles, case reports, reviews, and letters to the editor. The journal covers a wide range of topics including Subject matters include studies in clinical areas like immunology, anesthesia, cardiovascular medicine, complementary medicine, dentistry, and oral medicine, pathology, pharmacology and therapeutics, dermatology, respiratory therapy, rheumatology, drugs and medicines, ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology, emergency medicine, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and metabolism, obstetrics and gynecology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, geriatric medicine, hematology, oncology, ophthalmology, pediatrics, psychiatry, radiology, renal medicine, pharmacognosy, sexual health, urology, epidemiology, ethnic studies, health policy, occupational health, medical education, legal and forensic medicine, environmental medicine and public health, medicine development, and safety testing, drug legislation, and safety. PJAMMR follows a rigorous peer-review process to ensure the quality of its published articles. The journal is an important source of information for medical professionals, and researchers interested in multi scripting topic and related disciplines in Pakistan and beyond.</p> Nowshera Medical Colleage,Nowshera en-US Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2957-5893 Treatment Success with the Ponseti Technique in Congenital Talipes Equino Varusup to two Years of Age. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is a severe foot birth disorder that may make walking difficult and painful and limit mobility. Seventy-five per cent of clubfoot infants are born in low- and middle-income countries. Clubfoot has long been treated. As orthopaedists gravitated toward surgery to treat clubfoot in neonates, non-operative treatment became less popular.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study examined how the Ponseti technique works, how bad the deformity is (as measured by the Pirani score), and how much it costs to treat congenital talipes equino Varus in babies under the age of two. The Ponseti Clinic treated 490 individuals with 456 CTEV-infected foot cases.</p> <p><strong>Material And Methods:</strong> this prospective clinical study was conducted in Swat's Saidu Teaching Hospital between 2017 and 2021. 456 patients were selected using the inclusion and exclusion criteria department of orthopaedic saidu teaching hospital swat concluded this study. The youngsters were 3.20 months old on average, and they needed 6.80 casts to improve. At the final follow-up, 90.20 per cent of patients (score &gt; 24) had positive functional outcomes. The Ponseti method for CTEV treatment may be helpful regarding both function and aesthetics. This method is safe, straightforward, and economical to treat clubfoot in an impoverished country like Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study revealed that 90.20% of patients had a positive functional outcome. The average age of the patients at the start of treatment was 3.20 months, and the average number of casts required was 6.80. The Ponseti method was found to be an economical and effective treatment for CTEV in infants under the age of two.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study shows that the Ponseti technique is an effective and economical way to treat CTEV in infants under two. The method is safe and straightforward and has a high success rate. The results of this study suggest that the Ponseti technique is an excellent option for treating clubfoot in low- and middle-income countries, such as Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Congenital talipes equinovarus, Ponseti method, Pirani Score, orthopaedics, treatment, clubfoot<strong>.</strong></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2022-03-16 2022-03-16 1 01 01 07 Migraine Associated Vertigo in Children and Teenagers Epidemiology and Treatment A Single-Center Study. <p><span id="page73R_mcid17" class="markedContent"><strong><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">OBJECTIVE:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Describe The Symptoms And Outcome Of Vertigo In A Pediatric Population. Patients. The</span><br role="presentation" /><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Study Included All Children And</span> <span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Teenagers Who Presented With Vertigo In The Department Of </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Otoneurology Northwest General Hospital Peshawar, Duration Between 2014 To</span> <span dir="ltr" role="presentation">2021.</span></span></p> <p><span id="page73R_mcid18" class="markedContent"></span><span id="page73R_mcid19" class="markedContent"><strong><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">MATERIAL AND METHODS</span></strong><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">:</span> <span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Single-Center Study Looked At Children And Teens Who Reported</span><br role="presentation" /><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Vertigo Between 2014 And 2021. The Study Comprised Kids Under 13 With Normal Otoscopy, At</span><br role="presentation" /><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Least One Vertigo Episode, And No Previous Neurological Examination. </span></span><span id="page73R_mcid20" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Acute Otitis Media And Otitis Media With Effusion Induce Vertigo In Children. The Current Study </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Focused On Children And Adolescents Who Had Vertigo Despite Normal Orthoscopic Results. The </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Sample Size Was Obtained Using SPSS 2.4. </span></span></p> <p><span id="page73R_mcid21" class="markedContent"></span><span id="page73R_mcid22" class="markedContent"></span><span id="page73R_mcid22" class="markedContent"><strong><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">RESULTS:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" role="presentation">The Study Included 74 Patients. Table 1 Shows Patients' Demographics And Presenting </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Symptoms. 20 Patients (30%) Had Spontaneous Nystagmus, 5 Had Post-Head-Shaking Nystagmus, </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">10 Had A Positive Head Impulse Test, And 4 Had Positional Nystagmus (4 Percent). ENG Was </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Suggested In 54 Individuals. Twenty-Three Youngsters Passed The Study, While Four Did Not. 20 </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">(68%) Of The ENG Patients Showed Abnormal Caloric Tests, Characterized As Canal Paresis &gt;26% </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Or Directional Predominance &gt;30%, According To Jongkees' Formula. </span></span><span id="page73R_mcid23" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">6 Patients Had Abnormal Positional Nystagmus</span></span><span id="page73R_mcid24" class="markedContent"></span><span id="page73R_mcid25" class="markedContent"><br role="presentation" /></span></p> <p><span id="page73R_mcid25" class="markedContent"><strong><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">CONCLUSION:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" role="presentation">In A Child, Several Causes Of Vertigo May Appear With Identical Symptoms. </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Depending On The Etiology, Hospitals And Clinical Results Vary. The Diagnosis Should Guide </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Therapy And Follow-Up In Each Instance. Close Coordination With Medical Professionals Is Often </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Needed To Get The Proper Diagnosis And Therapy While Avoiding Superfluous Lab Testing.</span></span></p> <p><span class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation"><span id="page80R_mcid1" class="markedContent"><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Vertigo, Children, Teenagers, Epidemiology, Treatment, A Single-Center Study</span></span></span></p> <p> </p> Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 1 01 08 14 Infantile colic patients' rates of urinary tract infections at Khyber Teaching Hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan <p><strong>Background:</strong> Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which impact 8% of girls and 2% of boys by age seven and have a repeat rate of 10% to 30%, are common in infants and young children. Infantile colic is a very difficult condition for parents to manage.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To discover the prevalence of uti among patients who appear with neonatal distress</p> <p><strong>Material And Methods</strong>: 126 male and female painful babies participated in the research. Khyber Teaching Hospital's paediatrics division, Peshawar. Duration: from January 1, 2020, to August 1, 2019, inclusive. Each infant had two clear middle pee samples collected two hours apart to be tested for UTIs. The UTI was considered positive if the child had a history of temperature &gt;99 °F, dysuria, and more than five WBC per HPF or &gt;10 4 CFU/HPF on pee culture.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Children in this research ranged in age from 6 weeks to 6 months, with a mean age, weight, and height of 3.1501.42 months, 4.9790.82 kg, and 56.6503.08 cm, respectively. Men made up the overwhelming bulk of the cases. (69.8 per cent). 61.1 per cent of mothers breastfed their babies, while 38.9 per cent used bottles to nurse them. The prevalence of urinary tract infections among individuals was 8.7%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The frequency of UTI among babies who appear with diarrhoea is 8.7%, it can be inferred. This research emphasises the value of early newborn UTI detection and therapy and the requirement for preventative steps to lower the risk of UTI in this group.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> frequency, Infantile colic, urinary tract infection</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2022-09-04 2022-09-04 1 01 15 21 Obstetric Outcomes Of Teenage Pregnancy Vs. Non-Teenage Pregnancy Patients. A Multi-Center Study. <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: </strong>This study aimed to compare obstetric outcomes between teenage and non-teenage pregnancy patients across multiple centres. This was a retrospective cohort study of women aged 15-19 and 20-24 admitted to obstetric units at three centres in the United States. Data on maternal age, gestational age, preterm birth, low birth weight, cesarean section, and neonatal outcome were collected. After adjusting for potential confounders, teenage pregnancy patients were more likely to have preterm birth (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.30–1.91), low birth weight (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.83), and cesarean section (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.41–2.00). There were no statistically significant differences in neonatal outcomes between the two groups. This study demonstrates that teenage pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and cesarean section compared to non-teenage pregnancy patients. Future studies should investigate the underlying causes of these adverse outcomes for pregnant teens.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Material And Methods</strong>: a multi-centre study was conducted in kpk, Pakistan, from march 2021 to February 2022. all 14-18-year-olds who gave birth in the two hospitals had obstetric outcomes compared to non-adolescent women (19-36). chi-square and students' t-tests were used with a 0.05 significance level.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Results: </strong>In comparison to non-teenage moms, teenage mothers had higher rates of serious anaemia (7.5 vs 4.1%), chorioamnionitis (2.6 vs 0.6%), and post-maturity (4.6 vs 1.8%) and meconium inhalation syndrome (6.5 vs 2.4%), respectively. Teenagers were less prone than adults to be overweight. Instrumental deliveries are more common in teenagers (7.1% vs 2.2%, p 0.01). Preterm birth, low birth weight babies, rds, and neonatal and foetal deaths did not vary substantially between the two groups.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of this study showed that teenage pregnancies are associated with a higher risk of severe anaemia, chorioamnionitis, post maturity and meconium aspiration syndrome compared to non-teenage pregnancies. Preterm delivery, low birth weight infant, R.D.S., and fetal and perinatal death were not significantly different between the two groups. The results of this study suggest that teenage mothers need to be provided with appropriate obstetric care to reduce their risk of poor outcomes.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Keywords:</strong> obstetric, outcomes, teenage, non-teenage, pregnancy, a multi-centre study, Pakistan</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2022-10-18 2022-10-18 1 01 22 28 The Frequency Of Tibial Shaft Fractures That Fail To Mend Properly Despite The Use Of Locking Plates. A Case Study Series <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Fractures of the tibia often result from accidents and falls. Treatment for an open fracture Tibia is challenging for orthopaedic and plastic surgeons. Several treatment options are available for tibia fractures, including conservativeand surgical procedures. Locking plates are a successful therapeutic approach. However, they have problems, including nonunion.</p> <p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>This study aims to determine the frequency of nonunion in tibial shaft locking plates.</p> <h3>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</h3> <p>All patients hospitalized in our department with tibial shaft fractures who consented to participate were included in this research. The context for Conducting a Case Study The study was conducted at the Department of Orthopedic DHQ Hospital Batkhala Pakistan. The Period of Study Sixty months (Aug 16, 2020 - Feb 15, 2021) It was determined that the fracture needed to be stabilized, and a locking compression plate was used. Patients were contacted frequently utilizing their contact information to lessen the risk of them not following up. The 24th-week visit for nonunion was conducted using X-rays of the tibia shaft Anteroposterior and lateral views as the final evaluation for the research. The patient was instructed to notify the hospital immediately if any complications emerged from the surgery. When returning to the surgical location for follow-up appointments, All surgical operations were subjected to periodic radiological and clinical evaluation.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p> <p>A total of 60 patients were included in this research. All patients underwent surgery using a locking compression plate. Of these, 8 had nonunion of the tibial fracture at 24 weeks follow-up. The incidence of nonunion was 13.3%.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong></p> <p>The study revealed that the incidence of nonunion in tibial shaft locking plates is 13.3%. This is an important finding for orthopaedic surgeons because it highlights the risks of locking plates for tibial shaft fractures. Further research is needed to identify risk factors and strategies to reduce the incidence of nonunion.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong>Nonunion, tibial shaft fracture, locking plates, case series study</p> <p> </p> Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2022-10-23 2022-10-23 1 01 29 35