Format Requirements

Submission Format depends on Article Type

Maximum word count for a review paper is 4000, eliminating the title page, and an unstructured abstract of 150 words and references, with no more than five tables or figures and 35 references.

Original article: no more than 3000 words, omitting the title page, and a structured abstract of 250 words and 25 references, with no more than three tables or figures and 25 references. Short Reports/Short Communications/Special Communications/Case Reports: maximum 1250 words omitting the title page and an unstructured abstract of 150 words and references, with no more than two tables or figures and ten references. It should not have more than six writers.

Abstract; Introduction; Case Report; Discussion and Conclusion

Abstract; Introduction; Patients' Methods and Results; and Conclusion

Abstract; Introduction; Methods and Results; and Conclusion of Special Communication

Letters to the Editor: limit of 250 words if referring to a recent journal article; otherwise, 400 words. It can only include five references and one figure or table. It cannot be signed by more than three people. Letters referencing a recent journal article must be sent within four weeks of the article's publication.

General Conditions

The manuscript must be in 'British English.' If in doubt, non-native English speakers should seek the aid of professional, English-speaking medical editors. Getting comments from your colleagues also makes manuscript writing more productive, adaptable, and user-friendly.

Type the document on A4 white bond paper (8.5x11 inches or 21.6x27 centimetres) with at least 1.5 inch margins (4 cm).
Every page, type on one side of the paper with double space.
Begin each part on a separate page and in the following order: title page, abstract, introduction, materials/subjects/patients and methods, findings, discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables and figures with legends, and conclusion.
Beginning with the title page, number each page sequentially in the top right-hand corner. Enter the page number here.
Only provide decimal numbers up to two decimals. For example, 0.07 is valid instead than 0.071.
Instead of using brackets inside a sentence, sentences should be correctly formed. For example, research participants (women between the ages of 25 and 30) were contacted for interviews. 'The research participants comprised women between the ages of 25 and 30.' They were approached to participate in the interviews.'
Special Requirements

The editorial board of  magazine Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research welcomes The EQUATOR (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research) Network's efforts to promote proper research reporting. It has played a critical role in the global creation, distribution, and implementation of reporting criteria. For further information, go to http://www.equator-network.org/.

Each publication should be reported in accordance with the EQUATOR Network's scientific reporting rules. There are separate rules for each research type and issue under investigation. We are grateful to the EQUATOR Network's office bearers and contributors for allowing the Publication of the Pakistan Medical Association to be the first journal in Pakistan to adopt these reporting requirements. http://www.equator-network.org/resource-centre/library-of-health-research-reporting/ has a complete set of reporting standards.

Page Title
The following information should be included on the manuscript's title page:

Title that is concise and informative (less than 14 words)
Fill in the blanks with the first, middle, and last names of each author.
Complete author affiliation, including the name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be credited. Name, address, phone number, and email address (if applicable) of one author responsible for manuscript communication.
Indicate the appropriate author clearly.
Source(s) of assistance in the form of funding, equipment, pharmaceuticals, or a combination of these.
Any applicable disclaimer.
Abstract word count with 3-5 MeSH terms
The main article's word count, omitting the abstract and references.
Abstracts
It should succinctly summarise the topic being addressed in the research, how the investigation was carried out, the key findings, and the authors' conclusions based on the findings. The article type should determine whether the abstract is organised or unstructured. For original articles, a structured abstract of no more than 250 words is needed, while an unstructured abstract of no more than 150 words is required for other submission categories (case report, short communication, special communication, and review article). The organised abstract should be divided into four paragraphs labelled Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. The results should include important frequencies, percentages, and findings. Following the abstract, there should be 3-5 MeSH terms. Details are accessible from the index medicus' Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list. For further information, see to http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh.

Introduction
Where relevant, global, regional, and local reports on the issue covered in the article should be provided. Describe the study's purpose. Provide only references that are strictly relevant. Explain your hypothesis, why you believe this study is necessary, and how your aims will benefit you. In this part, clearly state the study's objective(s) without using subheadings.

Methods
Mention all technique components here, including research design, and discuss your choice of observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls).
Mention the study's scope, length, sampling process, sample size estimates, and follow-up time. If relevant, mention the inclusion and exclusion criteria without adding additional headers.

Identify the methodology, equipment (in parentheses, provide the manufacturer's name and address), and processes in sufficient detail to enable other employees to duplicate the findings. If appropriate, include references and short explanations for procedures that have been published but are not well recognised; explain new or significantly changed methods, provide reasons for utilising them, and assess their limits. Identify all medications and substances used accurately, including the generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

Authors submitting review submissions should include a section detailing the methodology utilised for data acquisition, selection, extraction, and synthesis. These approaches should be summarised in the abstract as well.

Ethics

When reporting on human subjects experiments, state if the methods followed were in conformity with the ethical requirements of the relevant committee on human experimentation and the most recent (2008) edition of the 1975 Helsinki Declaration. In text and illustrations, do not utilise patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers.

Indicate if the institutions' or a national research council's guidance for or any national legislation on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed when reporting animal studies.

Please provide documentation showing the research was authorised by the ERB (Ethical Review Board) of the relevant University/Institute. You may be asked to present an ERB certificate including data and the signatures of all authors participated in the research. In addition, the participants' informed permission should be explicitly expressed.

Statistics

The methods section is inadequate unless the statistical tests used are included. Describe statistical procedures in sufficient detail for a qualified reader with access to the source data to confirm the stated findings. When feasible, quantify results and report them with appropriate measurement error or uncertainty indications (such as standard deviation when mentioning mean values of quantitative variables, or confidence intervals where odds ratio is mentioned, etc.). Mention the statistical test that was used to get the P values. Discuss the eligibility of test participants. Give specifics on randomization. Describe the procedure and outcome of any observational blinding. Report any treatment-related problems. Provide the number of observations. Losses should be reported for observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). References (if any) for the study's design and statistical procedures should be to standard works (with pages specified) rather than to articles in which the designs or methods were first disclosed. Describe any general-purpose computer applications that were utilised.

In the techniques section, provide a broad explanation of the methods. Specify the statistical techniques used to examine the data when it is summarised in the findings section. Limit the number of tables and figures to those required to convey the paper's thesis and evaluate its support. Use graphs instead of tables with multiple items; avoid duplicating data in graphs and tables. Avoid non-technical usage of statistical terminology like "random" (which implies a randomising mechanism), "normal," "significant," "correlations," and "samples." Most statistical terminology, acronyms, and symbols are defined.

Results
In the text, tables, and graphics, present your findings in a logical order. Do not repeat all facts from tables or graphics in the text; instead, underline or summarise key points. Frequency and percentages should both be provided. e.g. There were 18 guys (2%). P values should be reported precisely. The mean should be accompanied by standard deviations. IQR should be used for medians.

Discussion
Highlight the novel and significant components of the research, as well as the conclusions that result from them. Do not repeat data or other items from the introduction or results section in detail. Include the significance of the results and their limitations, as well as implications for future study, in the discussion section. Relate your findings to other relevant research.

Link the findings to the study's aims, but avoid unqualified assertions and conclusions that are not fully supported by evidence. Authors should avoid making assertions about economic advantages and costs in particular unless their paper contains economic data and assessments. Avoid claiming priority and referring to incomplete work. When necessary, provide a new hypothesis. However, where appropriate, such advice should be properly labelled.

G.Finishing Touch

It should be founded on objective and primary facts. False, confusing conclusions and hypotheses should be avoided.

Acknowledgements
Persons who have contributed intellectually to the research but whose contributions do not support authorship may be recognised and their job or contribution specified, such as "scientific adviser critical assessment of study proposal," "data gathering," or "participation clinical trial." Such individuals must have granted their consent to be identified. Because readers may infer their support of the facts and conclusions, authors are responsible for securing explicit permission from those identified by name. Technical assistance should be thanked separately from other contributions in a paragraph.

References
For publishing in Pakistan journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, the Vancouver style is required. References should be referenced in the text in the order they appear in the text, with the reference number in superscript. Table and figure references should be numbered consecutively with those in the text.

The reference list should be double spaced and numbered sequentially, just like the text. According to the list of Journals included in Index Medicus, the Journal uses Index Vm image style for references and truncated journal titles. "Unpublished observations" and "personal communications" should not be used as references, however written—rather than verbal—communications should be indicated in the text. References marked "in press" must have been approved, not only prepared or submitted. All references must be verified against the original document by the author, who is responsible for their accuracy.

List the first six authors, et al., for journal publications. M. Hoshimoto-Iwamoto, A. Koike, O. Nagayama, A. Tajima, T. Uejima, H. Adachi, et al. The VE/VCO2 slope was calculated in cardiac patients using a constant work rate exercise test. 58: 291-5, 2008.

Epilepsy with three-second spike and wave rhythms: a clinical electroencephalographic and prognostic study of 346 individuals, Dalby MA. Acta Neurol Scand, suppl 40, 1-30, 1969.

Follow the examples below for books and book chapters: Drury I. Hyperventilation-induced seizures. Epileptic seizures: pathophysiology and clinical semiology, eds. Luders HO, Noachtars, Churchill & Livingstone, Philadelphia, 2000, pages 575-9.

Carynrabin R. Carynrabin R. Carynrabin R. Carynrabin R. Car How safe is surgery when the Surgeon is infected? The New York Times published its third edition on July 3, 2007.

Electronic journal article: Jonas J, Vignal JP, Baumann C, Anxionnat JF, Muresan M, Vespignani H, et al. Hyperventilation's effect on seizure activation: potentiation by antiepileptic drug tapering Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2009.200329. Published online first: 20 June 2010.

CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated [monographs on CD-ROM] is an electronic monograph. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers 2nd ed. Version 2.0, Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA, San Diego, 1995.

Proceedings of the Conference J. Kimura and H. Shibasaki are the editors. Clinical neurophysiology developments recently. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology, held in Kyoto, Japan, from October 15 to 19, 1995. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996.

Dissertation Kaplan SJ. Access and usage of post-hospital home health care by the elderly [dissertation]. Washington University, St. Louis (MO), 1995.

Supplemental volume Zhang QF, Shen HM. Nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer risk assessment Environmental Health Perspectives, 102 Suppl 1:275-82, 1994.

The World Wide Web J. Beckleheimer. How should URLs be cited in a bibliography? [online] 1994 [quoted on December 13, 2000]. The following URL is available: http://www.nrlssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.html

Educating America for the Twenty-First Century: Developing a Strategic Plan for Educational Leadership [online] 1994 [cited 1999 May 15]. Available at: Web address: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/CONF/Edplan.html

Homepage of the World Wide Web The Curtin University of Technology Curtin University of Technology's homepage [online] The most recent update was on May 22, 2000. [quoted on June 12, 2000]. Available at: Website: http://www.curtin.edu.au/

Symbols and abbreviations

The journal discourages the use of acronyms, with the exception of units of measurement; for further information on correct medical abbreviation, visit the CBE style Manual, Fifth Edition (Bethesda, MD Council of Biology Editions, 1983). When using an abbreviation, it must be followed by the full term or name of the object being shortened.

Drug Brand Names

It is preferable to use generic names.

Detailed Study

Italicize the name of the species. P.vivax, for example

Tables Double-space each table on a separate page. Tables should not be sent as pictures. Tables should be self-explanatory and enhance rather than duplicate the text. Each table must be referenced in the text in numerical sequence. Following the phrase Table, number the tables sequentially with an Arabic number. The titles/legends should be informative, concise, and prominently displayed at the top of the table. Give each column a brief or shortened title.

Explanatory material should be included in footnotes rather than in the header. In this sequence, use the symbols *,+,++,#,**. All non-standard abbreviations used in each table should be expanded in the footnote. Determine statistical measurements of variation, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean, for footnotes. If data from another published source is utilised, seek explicit permission from the original source's publisher and properly acknowledge. If unpublished data is utilised, ask permission from the main investigator and properly acknowledge. If abbreviations are used in the table, provide complete text at the bottom.

Figures and images should explain and supplement the text. The selection of crisp, high-quality graphics is critical. Poor-quality figures will be returned to the author for correction or replacement.

Two full sets of glossy illustrations, no less than 3.5x5 inches and no bigger than 8x10 inches, must be submitted. Send no original artwork. Glossy pictures of line drawings on white drawing paper in black India ink, with template or typeset typography, should be submitted. Hand-drawn or typewritten artwork will not be accepted. Letters, numbers, and symbols (typeset or template) must be clear and large enough to be legible after reduction.

Each picture must be numbered and acknowledged in the text in a sequential sequence. Illustrations should be marked on the back of each illustration with a gummed label carrying the following information: figure number, section of figure (if more than one), and indication of "top."

Color illustrations will be considered for publishing, but the author is responsible for all separation and printing expenses. At the time of production, the author will be given an estimate of these costs. Charges must be approved by the authors before manufacturing may begin. For evaluation, three full sets of glossy colour images (not transparencies) must be supplied. Polaroid prints are not permitted.

All drawings submitted become the property of the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association and are not returned until the submission is rejected.

Illustrations' Legends
Illustration legends should be brief and should not duplicate the text. Legends should be written on a separate page, double-spaced. Each figure should be mentioned in the text in numerical sequence. Following the phrase Figure, assign a number to the figures. Use letters to mark portions of pictures (for example, A,B,C) and fully define each component in the legend. Any letter designations or arrows on the artwork should be recognised and clearly discussed.

Original (never before published) illustrations are preferred for inclusion in the Journal; however, if pictures have previously been published, authors must acquire express permission from the publisher to republish. The original material's source must be mentioned in the references, and the following credit line must be included in the legend. (Reprinted with permission from Ref. X.) At the time of manuscript submission, all permission releases must be given to the Editor.